The Breton style had a strong revival between and the Second World War and it was used by the Seiz Breur movement. CELEBS CELEBS Bollywood International Tamil Telugu Malayalam Kannada Bengali Marathi Punjabi Celeb Themes Sports Music Royalty.
Archived from the original on 25 May Gallo transmission from parents to children is extremely low and efforts to standardise and publish books in Gallo did not reverse the decline of the language and its lack of prestige.
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- Gallo transmission from parents to children is extremely low and efforts to standardise and publish books in Gallo did not reverse the decline of the language and its lack of prestige.
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Brittany - Wikipedia
Brittany (/ ˈ b r ɪ t ən i /; French: Bretagne (); Breton: Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn [bəʁtaɛɲ]) is a peninsula, historic country and cultural region in the west of modern France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and then a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in ...
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Gallo had never been written before the 20th century, and several writing systems were created. They are however rarely known by the population and signs in Gallo are often unreadable, even for fluent speakers. In Loire-Atlantique , where Gallo is not promoted at all by the local authorities, many people do not even know the word "Gallo" and have no idea that it has writing systems and publications. The Gallo community is estimated at between 28,  and ,  speakers.
The language is taught on a non-compulsory basis in some schools, high-schools and universities, particularly in Ille-et-Vilaine. Bretons are mainly Catholic and the Christianisation occurred during the Roman Gaul and Frank era. They are known as the "Seven founder saints":. Other notable early missionaries are Gildas and the Irish saint Columbanus.
The proportion of students attending Catholic private schools is the highest in France. The patron saint of Brittany is Saint Anne , the Virgin's mother, but Ivo of Kermartin , a 13th-century priest, called Saint-Yves in French and Sant-Erwan in Breton, can also be considered as a patron saint.
His feast, 19 May, is Brittany's national day. Many distinctive traditions and customs have also been preserved in Brittany. These penitential ceremonies occur in some villages in Lower Brittany on the feast day of the parish's saint. The penitents form a procession and they walk together to a shrine , a church or any sacred place.
Some Pardons are reputed for their length, and they all finish by large meals and popular feasts. There is a very old pilgrimage called the Tro Breizh tour of Brittany , where the pilgrims walk around Brittany from the grave of one of the seven founder saints to another. Historically, the pilgrimage was made in one trip a total distance of around km for all seven saints. Nowadays, however, pilgrims complete the circuit over the course of several years.
In , the Tro Breizh included a special pilgrimage to Wales , symbolically making the reverse journey of the Welshmen Sant Paol, Sant Brieg, and Sant Samzun. Sometimes a skeleton wrapped in a shroud with the Breton flat hat, sometimes described as a real human being the last dead of the year, devoted to bring the dead to Death , he makes his journeys by night carrying an upturned scythe which he throws before him to reap his harvest.
Two servants dressed in the same shroud and hat as the Ankou pile the dead into the cart, and to hear it creaking at night means you have little time left to live. As official religious statistics are forbidden in France, there are no official figures about religious practices in Brittany.
Catholic religion has started to decline after the Second World War , during the urbanisation of Brittany. Brittany is home to many megalithic monuments; the words menhir and dolmen come from the Breton language. The largest menhir alignments are the Carnac stones. Other major sites include the Barnenez cairn , the Locmariaquer megaliths , the Menhir de Champ-Dolent , the Mane Braz tumulus and the Gavrinis tomb.
Monuments from the Roman period are rare, but include a large temple in Corseul and scarce ruins of villas and city walls in Rennes and Nantes. Brittany has a large number of medieval buildings. They include numerous Romanesque and French Gothic churches, usually built in local sandstone and granite , castles and half-timbered houses visible in villages, towns and cities. The French Renaissance occurred when Brittany lost its independence. In Lower Brittany , the medieval style never totally disappeared.
However, local innovations permitted some changes and the birth of a particular style. Many villages still have their closes, they date from the 16th and 17th centuries and sometimes include an elaborately carved calvary sculpture. During the 17th and the 18th centuries, the main seaports and towns obtained a typical French look, with baroque and neoclassical buildings.
Nantes , which was at the time the biggest French harbour, received a theatre, large avenues and quays, and Rennes was redesigned after a fire in Along the coast, Vauban and other French architects designed several citadels, such as in Le Palais and Port-Louis. In rural areas, Breton houses remained simple, with a single floor and a longhouse pattern.
Slates and reeds were usually used for roofing. During the 19th century, the Breton architecture was mainly characterised by the Gothic Revival and Eclecticism. At the end of the 19th century, several seaside resorts were created along the coast and villas and hotels were built in historicist , Art Nouveau , and later in the Art Deco styles. Until the 19th century, Catholicism had been the main inspiration for Breton artists. The region has a great number of baroque retables , made between the 17th and the 19th century.
The Breton style had a strong revival between and the Second World War and it was used by the Seiz Breur movement. The Seiz Breur artists also tried to invent a modern Breton art by rejecting French standards and mixing traditional techniques with new materials. Brittany is also known for its needlework , which can be seen on its numerous headdress models, and for its faience production, which started at the beginning of the 18th century.
Quimper faience is known worldwide for its bowls and plates painted by hand, and other towns, such as Pornic , also maintain a similar tradition. The designs have a strong traditional Breton influence, but Orientalism and Art Deco have also been used. Because of its distinct culture and natural landscape, Brittany has inspired many French artists since the 19th century.
The Pont-Aven School , which started to emerge in the s and lasted until the beginning of the 20th century, had a decisive influence on modern painting. Since the early s, Brittany has experienced a tremendous revival of its folk music. Numerous festivals were created, along with smaller fest-noz popular feasts. Celtic harp is also common, as are vocals and dances. The performers sing calls and responses while dancing.
Breton dances usually imply circles, chains or couples and they are different in every region. The oldest dances seem to be the passepied and the gavotte , and the newest ones derive from the quadrille and French Renaissance dances. In the s, several Breton artists started to use contemporary patterns to create a Breton pop music.
He also used American rock and roll in his works and influenced s Breton bands such as Kornog , Gwerz band [ fr ] and Tri Yann , who revived traditional songs and made them popular across France.
The Manau Hip hop group from Paris has strong Breton and Celtic inspirations. The 19th-century composer Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray was one of the first western European composers to be influenced by what is now known as world music. Brittany is closely associated with the Matter of Britain and King Arthur. There, ruins of a castle surrounded by a lake are associated with the Lady of the Lake , a dolmen is said to be Merlin 's tomb and a path is presented as Morgan le Fay 's Val sans Retour.
Tristan and Iseult are also said to have lived in Brittany. Another major Breton legend is the story about Ys , a city swallowed by the ocean. The oral tradition entertained by medieval poets died out during the 15th century and books in Breton were very rare before At that time, local writers started to collect and publish local tales and legends and wrote original works.
Published between and the Second World War , the literary journal Gwalarn favoured a modern Breton literature and helped translating widely known novels into Breton. After the war, the journal Al Liamm pursued that mission.
The Asterix comics, set during the time of Julius Caesar and written in the second half of the twentieth century, are set in Armorica, now Brittany. The Museum of Brittany, located in Rennes , was founded in Its collections are mainly dedicated to the history of the region.
Museums dedicated to Prehistory and local megaliths are located in Carnac and Penmarch , while several towns like Vannes and Nantes have a museum presenting their own history. The Museum of Fine Arts of Rennes owns a large collection of Egyptian, Greek and Roman antiquities as well as drawings and engravings by Domenico Ghirlandaio , Parmigianino , Albrecht Dürer and Rembrandt.
It has also works by Pablo Picasso , Rubens , Peter Lely and Paolo Veronese. The Museums of Fine Arts of Brest and Quimper offer similar collections, with large quantities of French painting together with the works of some Italian and Dutch artists.
The Museum of Fine Arts Pont-Aven is dedicated to the School of Pont-Aven. Museums in Saint-Malo , Lorient and Douarnenez are dedicated to ships and maritime traditions and history. In Saint-Nazaire , where many transatlantic ships were built, including SS Normandie and SS France , a museum showing transatlantic interiors was installed in a Second World War base. Brittany has a vibrant calendar of festivals and events.
It hosts some of France's biggest contemporary music festivals, such as La Route du Rock in Saint-Malo , the Vieilles Charrues in Carhaix , the Rencontres Trans Musicales in Rennes , the Festival du Bout du Monde in Crozon , the Hellfest in Clisson and the Astropolis in Brest. The Festival Interceltique de Lorient welcomes each year participants all the Celtic nations and their diasporas.
Several towns also organise historical re-enactments and events celebrating local traditions, such as the Filets Bleus in Concarneau which celebrates fishing. Brittany also has some film festivals like the Three Continents Festival in Nantes. The Utopiales international science fiction festival is held in the same city. Brest and Douarnenez both organise large tall ship meetings.
Major football teams are the FC Nantes , the Stade Rennais F. Professional footballers coming from the region also form the Brittany national football team which sometimes plays with national teams. Several Bretons have won the Tour de France : Bernard Hinault , Louison Bobet , Jean Robic and Lucien Petit-Breton as riders, and Cyrille Guimard as a directeur sportif.
Although Muscadet and Gros Plant white wines are produced south of the Loire , the traditional drink of Brittany is cider. Brittany is the second-largest cider-producing region in France.
Brittany also has a long beer-brewing tradition, tracing its roots back to the 17th century. Young artisanal brewers are keeping a variety of beer types alive,  such as Coreff de Morlaix , Tri Martolod and Britt. Stronger alcohols include the chouchen , a sort of mead made with wild honey, and an apple eau de vie called lambig.
They traditionally replaced bread as basic food and they can be served with cheese, sausages, bacon, mushrooms or eggs. They can be accompanied by Breton buttermilk called lait ribot. Brittany also has a dish similar to the pot-au-feu known as the kig ha farz , which consists of stewed pork or beef with buckwheat dumplings. Surrounded by the sea, Brittany offers a wide range of fresh seafood and fish, especially mussels and oysters. Among the seafood specialities is a fish stew called cotriade.
The beurre blanc sauce, invented in Saint-Julien-de-Concelles , close to Nantes , is often served with fish. They usually make their biscuits with salted butter and sell them in iron boxes. Famous Breton pastries include the kouign amann "butter cake" in Breton made with bread dough and high quantities of butter and sugar, and the far , a sort of sweet Yorkshire pudding usually made with plums.
Until the s, the Breton road network was poor because maritime and rail transport prevailed. The French president Charles de Gaulle implemented a major road construction plan in the and Brittany received over 10 billion francs of investments during 25 years. The Breton motorways are not toll roads , contrarily to the usual French highways. The main road artery linking cities and other settlements along the north coast is the Route nationale 12 which connects the cities of Rennes , Saint-Brieuc , Morlaix and Brest.
It also provides a link to southern Normandy , terminating in Paris. In south Brittany the Route nationale performs a similar role along the south coast providing connections between Nantes , Vannes , Lorient , Quimper and Brest. The Route nationale provides connections between Saint-Malo , Rennes and Nantes and terminates in Bordeaux.
Nantes is linked to Paris by the A11 autoroute , and Rennes is both on the A81 autoroute to Paris and the A84 autoroute to Caen.
These highways are standard French toll road. The biggest Breton airport is Nantes Atlantique Airport. Destination served include the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Ireland and Morocco. It is followed by Rennes — Saint-Jacques , Lorient South Brittany and Dinard — Saint-Malo. The Saint-Brieuc — Armor airport serves flights between Brittany and the Channel Islands.
Others smaller airport operates domestic flights in Quimper , and Lannion. Brittany is on two major TGV lines, one linking Paris to Nantes and Le Croisic , on the south coast, and another linking Paris to Rennes and Brest. The LGV Atlantique which stops at Le Mans will be extended to Rennes in , providing faster connections between Paris and Brittany. TGV train services also link the region with cities such as Lyon , Strasbourg , Marseille , and Lille.
TER Pays de la Loire operates trains between Nantes and smaller towns in Loire-Atlantique. There are ferry services that take passengers, vehicles and freight to Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Channel Islands. The main companies are Brittany Ferries which operates lines between Plymouth and Roscoff , Portsmouth and Saint-Malo , and Roscoff and Cork.
Irish Ferries operates the route Rosslare - Roscoff and Condor Ferries link Saint-Malo with Jersey. Cycling has always been one of the main sports of Brittany, but leisure cycling and the infrastructure to support it have been growing extremely rapidly. Some of these are routes using mainly smaller roads and both signposted and maintained by communes individually, but many are based on dedicated cycle paths often formed by converting disused railway tracks.
As a general rule cyclists are very well respected in the region and many larger towns have cycle-lanes — however traffic is 'cycle-friendly' even in their absence. The modern flag of Brittany was designed in It is called Gwenn ha Du "white and black" in Breton and it features eleven ermine spots their number may vary and nine stripes, the black ones represent the Breton speaking historical dioceses, and the white ones symbolise the gallo speaking dioceses.
The flag was created to replace the traditional ermine plain standard, considered too aristocratic and royalist.
It was inspired by the American flag and the British Red Ensign. Apart from the ermine flag, Breton historic banners include the Kroaz Du , a white flag with a black cross, the perfect negative of the Cornish flag. The coat of arms of Brittany, ermine plain , was adopted by John III in Ermine had been used in Brittany long before, and there is no clue about its origin. It was probably chosen by the dukes because of its similarity with the French fleur-de-lis. The ermine , or stoat, as an animal became the badge of John IV at the end of the 14th century.
It appeared later on numerous locations, including churches and castles. According to popular traditions, Anne of Brittany was hunting with her court when she saw a white ermine who preferred to die than to cross a dirty marsh. This episode would have inspired the duchess' motto : "Potius mori quam foedari" "rather death than dishonour".
It re-employs both the Welsh anthem 's music and that of "Bro Goth agan Tasow" the national anthem of Cornwall; its lyrics were written at the end of the 19th century. Colloquial Breton emblems include the Celtic triskelion , the menhirs and dolmens , local dishes such as the galettes , the Bigouden headdress and the traditional black round hat, the fisherman and his yellow raincoat, etc.
BZH is a common abbreviation for "Breizh" "Brittany" in Breton and people often put BZH stickers on their car-plates, although it is forbidden under French laws. Castle of Saint-Malo , Qui Qu'en Grogne Tower. Abbey and lighthouse of Saint-Mathieu. Festival du chant de marin , sea songs festival in Paimpol.
Otway Cannell. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the cultural region in the north-west of France. For the current French administrative region, see Brittany administrative region. For the given name, see Brittany name. For other uses, see Brittany disambiguation. Historical province in France. Coat of arms. Main article: History of Brittany. Main article: Union of Brittany and France.
See also: Politics of France. See also: Administrative divisions of France , Brittany administrative region , and Loire-Atlantique. Main article: Politics of Brittany. See also: Education in France. See also: Demography of France. Main article: Linguistic boundary of Brittany. Main article: Breton language. Play media. Main article: Gallo language. Main articles: Music of Brittany and Breton dance.
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