As angry as I may be about activities undertaken without my knowledge, I am still accountable for those activities. It charged that the government censored the independent newspaper La Prensa,  though French journalist Viktor Dedaj, who lived in Managua in the s, contended that La Prensa was generally sold freely and that the majority of radio stations were anti-Sandinista.
May 2021 – May 2022 Campaign
He concluded: "How did these shortcomings occur? Army Chaplains, contends that U. ISBN The reasons for their abduction are unknown, although it is speculated that they were kidnapped to replace the freed Americans.
The Contras are frequently criticized for their alleged human rights abuses. In July Americas Watch, a Human Rights Watch organ founded in while wars engulfed Central America, released a report titled Human Rights in Nicaragua: Reagan, Rhetoric and Reality. In it, the committee finds the Reagan administration’s approach to.
Apr 06, 1990 · Washington, D.C. – An August, 1996, series in the San Jose Mercury News by reporter Gary Webb linked the origins of crack cocaine in California to the contras, a guerrilla force backed by the Reagan administration that attacked Nicaragua's Sandinista government during the 1980s. Webb's series, "The Dark Alliance," has been the subject of ...
The American That Reagan Killed
The American That Reagan Killed. Thirty years ago, Ben Linder was gunned down by the American-funded contras while building infrastructure for the poor in Nicaragua. Benjamin Linder harvesting cotton in Nicaragua in 1984. David Blankenhorn. Our new issue, “The Working Class,” is out in print and online now. Subscribe today at a discount to ...
Setting dangerous precedents for terrorist action, CIA-supplied aircraft bombed Nicaragua’s international airport in Managua in and CIA operatives mined Nicaraguan harbors in 8 The Contras initially took credit for the mining, but The Wall Street Journal reported it to be the work of the CIA a few months later. Moreover, it was.
Today, the self-victimized aspirants for presidential candidatures are jumping into the limelight with six months to go before the elections. Photo courtesy of La Pupila Insomne. Resumen Latinoamericano-English. Skip to content. Central America and the Caribbean Latin America and ALBA-TCP Opinion. December 6, Japan urged to scrap law forcing transgender people to be sterilised before they can transition. Congress and by the three-person, Reagan-appointed Tower Commission.
Neither investigation found evidence that President Reagan himself knew of the extent of the multiple programs. In the end, several dozen administration officials were indicted, including then- Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger.
Eleven convictions resulted, some of which were vacated on appeal. The rest of those indicted or convicted were all pardoned in the final days of the presidency of George H. Bush , who had been Vice President at the time of the affair. The United States was the largest seller of arms to Iran under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi , and the vast majority of the weapons that the Islamic Republic of Iran inherited in January were American-made.
President Jimmy Carter imposed an arms embargo on Iran. After Ronald Reagan took office as President on 20 January , he vowed to continue Carter's policy of blocking arms sales to Iran on the grounds that Iran supported terrorism. A group of senior Reagan administration officials in the Senior Interdepartmental Group conducted a secret study on 21 July , and concluded that the arms embargo was ineffective because Iran could always buy arms and spare parts for its American weapons elsewhere, while at the same time the arms embargo opened the door for Iran to fall into the Soviet sphere of influence as the Kremlin could sell Iran weapons if the United States would not.
In the spring of , the United States launched Operation Staunch , a wide-ranging diplomatic effort to persuade other nations all over the world not to sell arms or spare parts for weapons to Iran. At the same time that the American government was considering its options on selling arms to Iran, Contra militants based in Honduras were waging a guerrilla war to topple the Sandinista National Liberation Front FSLN revolutionary government of Nicaragua.
By , funding for the Contras had run out; and, in October of that year, a total ban came into effect. The second Boland Amendment, in effect from 3 October to 3 December , stated:. During the fiscal year no funds available to the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defense or any other agency or entity of the United States involved in intelligence activities may be obligated or expended for the purpose of or which may have the effect of supporting directly or indirectly military or paramilitary operations in Nicaragua by any nation, organization, group, movement, or individual.
In violation of the Boland Amendment, senior officials of the Reagan administration continued to secretly arm and train the Contras and provide arms to Iran, an operation they called "the Enterprise". A major legal debate at the center of the Iran—Contra affair concerned the question of whether the NSC was one of the "any other agency or entity of the United States involved in intelligence activities" covered by the Boland amendment.
The Reagan administration argued it was not, and many in Congress argued that it was. The Reagan administration argued that because the constitution assigned the right to conduct foreign policy to the executive, its efforts to overthrow the government of Nicaragua were a presidential prerogative that Congress had no right to try to halt via the Boland amendments. Air Force officer turned arms dealer Richard Secord that supplied arms to the Contras.
It was ostensibly a private sector operation, but in fact was controlled by the NSC. As reported in The New York Times in , "continuing allegations that Reagan campaign officials made a deal with the Iranian Government of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in the fall of " led to "limited investigations.
Avraham Tamir, a high-ranking Israeli Defense Ministry official in , said there was an "oral agreement" to allow the sale of "spare parts" to Iran. This was based on an "understanding" with Secretary Alexander Haig which a Haig adviser denied. This account was confirmed by a former senior American diplomat with a few modifications. The diplomat claimed that "[Ariel] Sharon violated it, and Haig backed away On 17 June , National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane wrote a National Security Decision Directive which called for the United States of America to begin a rapprochement with the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Dynamic political evolution is taking place inside Iran. Instability caused by the pressures of the Iraq-Iran war, economic deterioration and regime in-fighting create the potential for major changes inside Iran. The Soviet Union is better positioned than the U. The U. S should encourage Western allies and friends to help Iran meet its import requirements so as to reduce the attractiveness of Soviet assistance This includes provision of selected military equipment.
In early July , the historian Michael Ledeen , a consultant of National Security Adviser Robert McFarlane , requested assistance from Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres for help in the sale of arms to Iran. They sought specifically the delivery from Israel of TOW missiles The plan was discussed with President Reagan on 18 July and again on 6 August The Americans believed that there was a moderate faction in the Islamic republic headed by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani , the powerful speaker of the Majlis who was seen as a leading potential successor to Khomeini and who was alleged to want a rapprochement with the United States.
In , President Reagan entered Bethesda Naval Hospital for colon cancer surgery. While doctors seemed to be confident that the surgery was successful, the discovery of his localized cancer was a daunting realization for Reagan. These factors were bound to contribute to psychological distress in the midst of an already distressing situation. While it only lasted slightly longer than the length of the procedure approximately seven hours and 54 minutes , this temporary transfer of power was never formally recognized by the White House.
Reagan and his advisors did not want his actions to establish a definition of incapacitation that would bind future presidents. Thomas P. Strom Thurmond. The meeting took place five days after the surgery and only three days after doctors gave the news that his polyp had been malignant.
The three participants of this meeting had very different recollections of what was discussed during its minute duration. According to Reagan, these Iranians sought to establish a quiet relationship with the United States, before establishing formal relationships upon the death of the aging Ayatollah.
Following the Israeli—U. The following arms were supplied to Iran:  . The first arms sales to Iran began in , though the official paper trail has them beginning in see above. On 20 August , Israel sent 96 American-made TOW missiles to Iran through an arms dealer Manucher Ghorbanifar. On 15 September , following the second delivery, Reverend Benjamin Weir was released by his captors, the Islamic Jihad Organization.
On 24 November , 18 Hawk anti-aircraft missiles were delivered. This called for a slight change in the arms transactions: instead of the weapons going to the "moderate" Iranian group, they would go to "moderate" Iranian army leaders.
I argued strongly that we have an embargo that makes arms sales to Iran illegal and President couldn't violate it and that 'washing' transactions through Israel wouldn't make it legal.
Shultz, Don Regan agreed. On the day of McFarlane's resignation, Oliver North , a military aide to the United States National Security Council NSC , proposed a new plan for selling arms to Iran, which included two major adjustments: instead of selling arms through Israel, the sale was to be direct at a markup; and a portion of the proceeds would go to Contras , or Nicaraguan paramilitary fighters waging guerrilla warfare against the Sandinista National Liberation Front election Sandinista government, claiming power after an election full of irregularities.
All of these activities continued to take place within the framework of the president's broad authorization. Until the press reported on the existence of the operation, nobody in the administration questioned the authority of Poindexter's and North's team to implement the president's decisions".
They eventually relented, and in February , 1, TOW missiles were shipped to the country. Both the sale of weapons to Iran and the funding of the Contras attempted to circumvent not only stated administration policy, but also the Boland Amendment. Administration officials argued that regardless of Congress restricting funds for the Contras, or any affair, the President or in this case the administration could carry on by seeking alternative means of funding such as private entities and foreign governments.
The money was eventually returned to the Sultan of Brunei , with interest. Retired National Security Advisor McFarlane conducted another international voyage, this one to Tehran — bringing with him a gift of a bible with a handwritten inscription by Ronald Reagan   and, according to George Cave , a cake baked in the shape of a key. The American delegation comprised McFarlane, North, Cave a retired CIA officer who worked in Iran in the s—70s , Teicher, Israeli diplomat Amiram Nir and a CIA translator.
They arrived in Tehran in an Israeli plane carrying forged Irish passports on 25 May Much to McFarlane's disgust, he did not meet ministers, and instead met in his words "third and fourth level officials". Otherwise, you can work with my staff. Reagan authorized the shipment to ensure that those potential events would not occur. C and gave him a guided tour at midnight of the White House. Joe," after the popular American toy.
The reasons for their abduction are unknown, although it is speculated that they were kidnapped to replace the freed Americans. The captors promised to release the remaining two, but the release never happened. During a secret meeting in Frankfurt in October , North told Bahramani that: "Saddam Hussein must go". After a leak by Mehdi Hashemi , a senior official in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, the Lebanese magazine Ash-Shiraa exposed the arrangement on 3 November The operation was discovered only after an airlift of guns Corporate Air Services HPF was downed over Nicaragua.
Eugene Hasenfus , who was captured by Nicaraguan authorities after surviving the plane crash, initially alleged in a press conference on Nicaraguan soil that two of his coworkers, Max Gomez and Ramon Medina, worked for the Central Intelligence Agency. My purpose was At the same time we undertook this initiative, we made clear that Iran must oppose all forms of international terrorism as a condition of progress in our relationship.
The scandal was compounded when Oliver North destroyed or hid pertinent documents between 21 November and 25 November During North's trial in , his secretary, Fawn Hall , testified extensively about helping North alter and shred official United States National Security Council NSC documents from the White House. According to The New York Times , enough documents were put into a government shredder to jam it.
During the trial, North testified that on 21, 22 or 24 November, he witnessed Poindexter destroy what may have been the only signed copy of a presidential covert-action finding that sought to authorize CIA participation in the November Hawk missile shipment to Iran.
Attorney General Edwin Meese admitted on 25 November that profits from weapons sales to Iran were made available to assist the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
On the same day, John Poindexter resigned, and President Reagan fired Oliver North. When the story broke, many legal and constitutional scholars expressed dismay that the NSC, which was supposed to be just an advisory body to assist the President with formulating foreign policy had "gone operational" by becoming an executive body covertly executing foreign policy on its own. In Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA — , journalist Bob Woodward chronicled the role of the CIA in facilitating the transfer of funds from the Iran arms sales to the Nicaraguan Contras spearheaded by Oliver North.
According to Woodward, then-Director of the CIA William J. Casey admitted to him in February that he was aware of the diversion of funds to the Contras. On 6 May , William Casey died the day after Congress began public hearings on Iran—Contra. Independent Counsel , Lawrence Walsh later wrote: "Independent Counsel obtained no documentary evidence showing Casey knew about or approved the diversion.
The only direct testimony linking Casey to early knowledge of the diversion came from [Oliver] North. According to his Middle Eastern experts, the operation was pointless because the moderates in Iran were not in a position to challenge the fundamentalists.
However, he was overruled by Clair George. This Presidential Commission took effect on 1 December and became known as the Tower Commission. The main objectives of the commission were to inquire into "the circumstances surrounding the Iran—Contra matter, other case studies that might reveal strengths and weaknesses in the operation of the National Security Council system under stress, and the manner in which that system has served eight different presidents since its inception in ".
The Tower Commission was the first presidential commission to review and evaluate the National Security Council. President Reagan appeared before the Tower Commission on 2 December , to answer questions regarding his involvement in the affair. When asked about his role in authorizing the arms deals, he first stated that he had; later, he appeared to contradict himself by stating that he had no recollection of doing so.
The report published by the Tower Commission was delivered to the president on 26 February The Commission had interviewed 80 witnesses to the scheme, including Reagan, and two of the arms trade middlemen: Manucher Ghorbanifar and Adnan Khashoggi.
It determined that President Reagan did not have knowledge of the extent of the program, especially about the diversion of funds to the Contras, although it argued that the president ought to have had better control of the National Security Council staff.
The report heavily criticized Reagan for not properly supervising his subordinates or being aware of their actions. In January , Congress announced it was opening an investigation into the Iran—Contra affair. Depending upon one's political perspective, the Congressional investigation into the Iran—Contra affair was either an attempt by the legislative arm to gain control over an out-of-control executive arm, a partisan "witch hunt" by the Democrats against a Republican administration or a feeble effort by Congress that did far too little to rein in the "imperial presidency" that had run amok by breaking numerous laws.
On this critical point, the shredding of documents by Poindexter, North and others, and the death of Casey, leave the record incomplete".
Reagan expressed regret regarding the situation in a nationally televised address from the Oval Office on 4 March , and in two other speeches. The reason I haven't spoken to you before now is this: You deserve the truth. There's been enough of that. First, let me say I take full responsibility for my own actions and for those of my administration. As angry as I may be about activities undertaken without my knowledge, I am still accountable for those activities.
As disappointed as I may be in some who served me, I'm still the one who must answer to the American people for this behavior. Finally, the president acknowledged that his previous assertions that the U.
My heart and my best intentions still tell me that's true, but the facts and the evidence tell me it is not.
This runs counter to my own beliefs, to administration policy, and to the original strategy we had in mind. To this day, Reagan's role in these transactions is not definitively known.
It is unclear exactly what Reagan knew and when, and whether the arms sales were motivated by his desire to save the U. Oliver North wrote that "Ronald Reagan knew of and approved a great deal of what went on with both the Iranian initiative and private efforts on behalf of the contras and he received regular, detailed briefings on both I have no doubt that he was told about the use of residuals for the Contras, and that he approved it.
There is some question and dispute about precisely the level at which he chose to follow the operation details. There is no doubt, however, Domestically, the affair precipitated a drop in President Reagan's popularity. His approval ratings suffered "the largest single drop for any U.
Magnus Ranstorp wrote, "U. In Iran, Mehdi Hashemi , the leaker of the scandal, was executed in , allegedly for activities unrelated to the scandal. Though Hashemi made a full video confession to numerous serious charges, some observers find the coincidence of his leak and the subsequent prosecution highly suspicious.
In , just five years after leaving office, President Reagan announced that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. The Independent Counsel , Lawrence E. Walsh , chose not to re-try North or Poindexter. On 27 July , Israeli counterterrorism expert Amiram Nir briefed Vice President Bush in Jerusalem about the weapon sales to Iran. In an interview with The Washington Post in August , Bush stated that he was denied information about the operation and did not know about the diversion of funds.
In January during a live interview with Bush on CBS Evening News , Dan Rather told Bush that his unwillingness to speak about the scandal led "people to say 'either George Bush was irrelevant or he was ineffective, he set himself outside of the loop. No operational role.
Although Bush publicly insisted that he knew little about the operation, his statements were contradicted by excerpts of his diary released by the White House in January I'm one of the few people that know fully the details, and there is a lot of flak and misinformation out there.
It is not a subject we can talk about On 24 December , after he had been defeated for reelection , lame duck President George H. Bush pardoned five administration officials who had been found guilty on charges relating to the affair.
Bush also pardoned Caspar Weinberger , who had not yet come to trial. Barr advised the President on these pardons, especially that of Caspar Weinberger. In response to these Bush pardons, Independent Counsel Lawrence E. The Iran—Contra affair and the ensuing deception to protect senior administration officials including President Reagan was cast as an example of post-truth politics by Malcolm Byrne of George Washington University. The th Congress formed a Joint Committee of the United States Congress Congressional Committees Investigating The Iran-Contra Affair and held hearings in mid Transcripts were published as: Iran—Contra Investigation: Joint Hearings Before the Senate Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition and the House Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran U.
GPO — A closed Executive Session heard classified testimony from North and Poindexter; this transcript was published in a redacted format. The joint committee's final report was Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran—Contra Affair With Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views U.
GPO 17 November The records of the committee are at the National Archives , but many are still non-public. Testimony was also heard before the House Foreign Affairs Committee , House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence , and Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and can be found in the Congressional Record for those bodies. The Senate Intelligence Committee produced two reports: Preliminary Inquiry into the Sale of Arms to Iran and Possible Diversion of Funds to the Nicaraguan Resistance 2 February and Were Relevant Documents Withheld from the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran—Contra Affair?
Contras – Wikipedia tiếng Việt
Liên kết ngoài. Confessions of a Contra: How the CIA Masterminds the Nicaraguan Insurgency by The New Republic, ngày 5 tháng 8 năm 1985 "The Contras' Valley Forge: How I View the Nicaragua Crisis", by Enrique Bermúdez (with Michael Johns), Policy Review magazine, Summer 1988. The Contras and U.S. Funding from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital ArchivesĐã trở thành: Recontra Frente Norte 380
Mar 08, · Typical among them was an Oct. 28, , contra attack on the rural area of El Jicaro in northern Nicaragua. In an affidavit, Maria Bustillo, 57, testified that five armed men dressed in the FDN Estimated Reading Time: 5 mins. 08/03/ · Two private human rights organizations issued reports this week charging the contras, as the Nicaraguan rebels are commonly called, with a pattern of attacks on civilians, including murder. Liên kết ngoài. Confessions of a Contra: How the CIA Masterminds the Nicaraguan Insurgency by The New Republic, ngày 5 tháng 8 năm "The Contras' Valley Forge: How I View the Nicaragua Crisis", by Enrique Bermúdez (with Michael Johns), Policy Review magazine, Summer The Contras and U.S. Funding from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives.
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The Contras were the various U. Among the separate contra groups, the Nicaraguan Democratic Force FDN emerged as the largest by far. Invirtually all contra organizations were united, at least nominally, into the Nicaraguan Resistance. During their war against the Nicaraguan government, the Contras committed numerous human rights violations and Contras Nicaragua terrorist tactics. Supporters of the Contras tried to downplay these violations, particularly the Reagan administration in the US, which engaged in a campaign of white propaganda to alter public opinion in favor of the contras,  while covertly encouraging the Contras to attack civilian targets.
After US support was banned by Congressthe Reagan administration covertly continued it. These illegal activities culminated in the Iran—Contra affair. The Contras were not a monolithic group, but a combination of three distinct elements of Nicaraguan society: . A third force, Misurasata, appeared among the MiskitoSumo and Rama Amerindian peoples of Nicaragua's Atlantic coast, who in December found themselves in conflict with the authorities following the government's efforts to nationalize Indian land.
In the course of this conflict, forced removal of at least 10, Indians to relocation centers in the interior of the country and subsequent burning of some villages took place. After UNO's dissolution early inthe Nicaraguan Resistance RN was organized along similar lines in May.
In front of the International Court of JusticeNicaragua claimed that the contras were altogether a creation of the U. The US government viewed the leftist Sandinistas as a threat to economic interests of American corporations in Nicaragua and to national security. US President Ronald Reagan stated in that "The defense of [the USA's] southern frontier" was at stake. The effort to support the contras was one component of the Reagan Doctrinewhich called for providing Juba Ii support to movements opposing Soviet-supportedcommunist governments.
By Decemberhowever, the United States had already begun to support armed opponents of the Sandinista government. From the beginning, the CIA was in charge. In the fiscal yearthe U.
At this time, it only outlawed U. Nevertheless, the case for support of the contras continued to be made in Washington, Trasgredire Imdb. On 1 May President Reagan announced that his administration perceived Nicaragua to be "an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States", and declared a "national emergency" and a trade embargo against Nicaragua to "deal with that threat".
Soon after the embargo was established, Managua re-declared "a policy of nonalignment" and sought the aid of Western Europe, who were opposed to U. Johnson, a former Chief of the U.
Army Chaplains, contends that U. It was alarming that in just a few months after the Sandinista revolution, Nicaragua received international acclaim for its rapid progress in the fields of literacy and health.
It was alarming that a socialist-mixed-economy state could do Contras Nicaragua a few short months what the Somoza dynasty, a U. It was truly alarming that the Sandinistas were intent on providing the very services that establish a government's political and moral legitimacy. The government's program included increased wages, subsidized food pricesand expanded health, welfare, and education services.
And though it nationalized Somoza's former properties, it preserved a private sector that accounted for between 50 and 60 percent of GDP.
The United States began to support Contra activities against the Sandinista government by Decemberwith the CIA at the forefront of operations. The CIA supplied the funds and the equipment, coordinated training programs, and provided intelligence and target lists.
While the Contras had little military successes, they did prove adept at carrying out CIA guerrilla warfare strategies from training manuals which advised them to incite mob violence, "neutralize" civilian leaders and government officials and attack "soft targets" — including schools, health clinics and cooperatives.
The victim dug his own grave, scooping the dirt out with his hands He crossed himself. Then a contra executioner knelt and rammed a k-bar knife into his throat. A second enforcer stabbed at his jugular, then his abdomen. When the corpse was finally still, the contras threw dirt Contras Nicaragua the shallow grave — and walked away. The CIA officer in charge of the covert war, Duane "Dewey" Clarridgeadmitted to the House Intelligence Committee staff in a secret briefing in that the Contras were routinely murdering "civilians and Sandinista officials in the provinces, as well as heads of cooperatives, nurses, doctors and judges".
But he claimed that this did not violate President Reagan's executive order prohibiting assassinations because the agency defined it as just 'killing'. This is the policy, to keep putting pressure until the people cry 'uncle'".
It also recommends gathering the local population to witness and take part in public Contras Nicaragua. After the signing of the Central American Peace Accord in Augustthe year war related deaths and economic destruction reached its peak, the Contras eventually entered negotiations with the Sandinista governmentand the war began to deescalate. By the US backed Contra war and economic isolation had inflicted severe economic Contras Nicaragua on Nicaraguans. The US government knew that the Nicaraguans had been exhausted from the war, which had cost 30, lives, and that voters usually vote the incumbents out during economic decline.
By the late s Nicaragua's internal conditions had changed so radically that the US approach to the elections differed greatly from UNO presidential nominee Violeta Chamorro was received by President Bush at the White House. The Contra war Contras Nicaragua over Contras Nicaragua year before the election.
The US promised to end the economic embargo should Chamorro win. The UNO scored a decisive victory on 25 February Chamorro won with 55 percent of the presidential vote as compared to Ortega's 41 percent. Of 92 seats in the National Assembly, UNO gained 51, and the FSLN won On 25 AprilChamorro assumed presidency from Daniel Ortega.
With Congress blocking further aid to the Contras, the Reagan administration sought to arrange funding and military supplies by means of third countries and private sources. Oliver North in charge. According to the London Spectator, U.
No journalist paid it any attention until the Laufhaus In Braunschweig CIA supply man, Eugene Hasenfuswas shot down and captured by the Nicaraguan army. Similarly, reporters neglected to investigate many leads indicating that Oliver North was running the Contra operation from his office in the National Security Council. The issue of drug money and its importance in funding Contras Nicaragua Nicaraguan conflict was the subject of various reports and publications.
The contras were funded by drug trafficking, of which the United States was aware. The Reagan administration's support for the Contras continued to Contras Nicaragua controversy well into the s. In AugustSan Jose Mercury News reporter Gary Webb published a series titled Dark Alliancealleging that the contras contributed to the rise of crack cocaine in California. Gary Webb's career as a journalist was subsequently discredited by the leading U.
An internal CIA report, entitled, "Managing a Nightmare", shows the agency used "a ground base of already productive relations with journalists" to help counter what it called "a genuine public relations Contras Nicaragua. According to Farah, while it was common knowledge that the Contras were involved in cocaine trafficking, the editors of the Washington Post refused to take it seriously:.
If you're talking about our intelligence community tolerating — if not promoting — drugs to pay for black ops, it's rather an uncomfortable thing to do when you're an establishment paper like the Post. An investigation by the United States Department of Justice also stated that their "review did not substantiate the main allegations stated and implied in the Mercury News articles. Contras Nicaragua the time the US Congress blocked funding for the contras, the Reagan government engaged in a campaign to alter public opinion and change the vote in Congress on contra aid.
In the Sandinista government filed a suit in the International Court of Justice ICJ against the United States Nicaragua v. United Stateswhich resulted in a judgment against the United States.
Contras Nicaragua ICJ held that the U. Regarding the alleged human rights violations by the contras, however, the ICJ took the view that the United States could be held accountable for them only if it would have been proven that the U.
The United States, Contras Nicaragua did not participate in the merits phase of the proceedings, maintained that the ICJ's power did not supersede the Constitution of the United States and argued that the court did not seriously consider the Nicaraguan role in El Salvador, while it accused Nicaragua of actively supporting armed groups there, specifically in the form of supply of arms.
Judge Schwebel,  who concluded that in supporting the contras, the United States acted lawfully in collective self-defence in El Salvador's support. Americas Watch, which subsequently became part of Human Rights Watchaccused the Contras of: . In his affidavit to the World Court, former contra Edgar Chamorro testified that "The CIA did not Contras Nicaragua such tactics.
To the contrary, the Agency severely criticized me when I admitted to the press that the FDN had regularly kidnapped and executed agrarian reform workers and civilians. We were told that the only way to defeat the Sandinistas was to Contra leader Adolfo Calero denied that his forces deliberately targeted civilians: "What they call a cooperative is also a troop concentration full of armed people.
We are not killing civilians. We are fighting armed people and returning fire when fire is directed at us. It alleged that Americas Watch gave too much credence to alleged Contra abuses and systematically tried to discredit Nicaraguan human rights Contras Nicaragua Pornktuve as the Contras Nicaragua Commission on Human Rightswhich blamed the major human rights abuses on the Contras. InThe Wall Street Journal reported:. Three weeks ago, Americas Watch issued a report on human rights abuses in Nicaragua.
How can we get people in the U. The Bush administration is responsible for these abuses, not only because the contras are, for all practical purposes, a U.
Ballermann Porno the contras were besieged by charges of corruption, human-rights abuses, and military ineptitude. There were isolated protests among the population against the draft implemented by the Sandinista government, which even resulted in full-blown street clashes in Masaya in After a cutoff in U.
With the help of five Central American Presidents, including Ortega, the sides agreed that a voluntary demobilization of the contras should start in early December They chose this date to facilitate free and fair elections in Nicaragua in February even though the Reagan administration had pushed for a delay of contra disbandment.
Possible explanations include that the Nicaraguan people were disenchanted with the Ortega government as well as the fact that already in Novemberthe White House had announced that the economic embargo against Nicaragua would continue unless Violeta Chamorro won.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Contra. Succeeded by Bismarcker Rocktage Frente Norte See also: CIA activities in Nicaragua. See also: Reagan Doctrine and History of Nicaragua — See also: Iran—Contra affair.
Main article: Nicaragua v. United States.